Global Energy Demand and Opportunities to Reduce the Carbon Footprint of Transportation
Global energy demand continues to rapidly increase with growth in population and increased access to energy. Transportation accounts for 20% of the global energy consumption with significant growth anticipated, specifically, with over 40% additional vehicles expected in the world by 2040. As internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles will continue to increase for the next decades and these vehicles constitute the largest share of light-duty energy demand to 2050, further reducing the carbon footprint and criteria pollutants of ICE vehicles offer significant opportunity toward our goal of driving lower emissions in transportation. Opportunities to further improve the fuel efficiency and reduce carbon emissions throughout the life cycle of transportation will be examined with specific examples provided for spark-ignition, diffusion compression ignition, and low-temperature compression ignition combustion technologies.